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Czech Republic Geography
 
 
 

The Czech Republic is a strategically located landlocked country in Eastern Europe. It sits astride some of the oldest and most significant land routes in Europe. Comparatively, the Czech Republic is slightly smaller than the state of South Carolina with a total area of 78,866 sq km (30,450 sq mi). It shares boundaries with Poland on the northeast, Slovakia on the southeast, Austria on the south, and Germany on the west and northwest and has a total boundary length of 1,881 km (1,169 mi). The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is located in the northcentral part of the country.

Landscape in the Czech Republic is exceedingly varied. Bohemia, to the west, consists of a basin drained by the Elbe and the Vltava (or Moldau) rivers, surrounded by mostly low mountains, such as the Krkonoše range of the Sudetes. The highest point in the country, Sněžka at 1,602 m (5,256 ft), is located here. Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also quite hilly. It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the Oder River.

Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea. The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen, a 30,000-square-metre (7.4-acre) lot in the middle of the Hamburg Docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles, to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported down river could be transferred to seagoing ships. The territory reverts to Germany in 2028.

The Czech Republic has a temperate continental climate, with relatively hot summers and cold, cloudy and snowy winters. Most rain falls during the summer. The temperature difference between summer and winter is relatively high, due to the landlocked geographical position.

Within the Czech Republic, temperatures vary greatly, depending on the elevation. In general, at higher altitudes, the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases. The wettest area in the Czech Republic is found around Bílý Potok in Jizera Mountains and the driest region is the Louny District to the northwest of Prague. Another important factor is the distribution of the mountains; therefore, the climate is quite varied.
At the highest peak of Sněžka (1,602 m/5,256 ft), the average temperature is only -0.4°C (31.28°F), whereas in the lowlands of the South Moravian Region, the average temperature is as high as 10°C (50°F). The country's capital, Prague, has a similar average temperature, although this is influenced by urban factors.

The coldest month is usually January, followed by February and December. During these months, there is usually snow in the mountains and sometimes in the major cities and lowlands. During March, April and May, the temperature usually increases rapidly, especially during April, when the temperature and weather tends to vary widely during the day. Spring is also characterized by high water levels in the rivers, due to melting snow with occasional flooding.

The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. On average, summer temperatures are about 20 degrees higher than during winter. Especially in the last decade, temperatures above 30°C (86°F) are not unusual. Summer is also characterised by rain and storms.

Autumn generally begins in September, which is still relatively warm and dry. During October, temperatures usually fall below 15°C (59°F) or 10°C (50°F) and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point.

Overview

Location
Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovikia, and Austria

Geographic coordinates
49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references
Europe

Area
total: 78,867 sq km
land: 77,247 sq km
water: 1,620 sq km


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